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Dhamma lessons (7)

The Path of purification By Samatha-Bhavana

1: Samatha-bhavana (concentration meditation.)

There are 40 meditation subjects. ( Or sevenfold meditation subjects)

1) 10 Kasinas

2) 10 kinds of foulness (Asubha)

3) 10 recollections (Anussati)

4) 4 Divine Abodes ( Brahma vihara)

5) One perception of loathsomeness in food (Ahare patikula sanna)

6) One analysis of the four elements (Satudhatu vavatthana)

7-10) 4 immaterial states ( Aruppa)

Ten Kasina are as follows

1- Earth kasina (pat hta vi- kasina)

2- Water kasina (Arpo- kasina)

3- Fire kasina( Tejo- kasina)

4- Air kasina(Vayo- kasina)

5- Blue kasina(Nila- kasina)

6- Yellow kasina(Pita- kasina)

7- Red kasina(Lohita- kasina)

8- White kasina(Odata- kasina)

9- Space kasina (Arkasa- kasina) or limited space kasina (Paricchannakasa- kasina)

10-Light kasina(Aloka-kasina)

The Ten kinds of Foulness(Asubha)

The Ten kinds of Foulness are corpse in different stages of decay.

According to Visuddhimagga, each of these meditation subjects is best suited for meditators who are attached in particular ways to their own or others bodies.

They are especially recommended for removing sensual desire.

1-The bloated (unpleasantly swollen) corpse (Uddhu mataka)

2-The livid(blue-grey)corpse (Vinilaka)

3- The festering(forming pus)corpse (Vipubbaka)

4-The dismembered(cut up or torn apart) corpse (Vicchiddaka)

5-The eaten corpse(Vikkhayitaka)

6-The scattered- in- pieces corpse(Vikkhittaka)

7-The hacked (cut up in uneven pieces) and scattered or a mutilated and scattered -in-pieces corpse(Hatavikkhittaka)

8-The bleeding or bloody corpse (Lohitaka)

9-The worm-infested corpse(puluvaka, pulavaka)

10-The skeleton(Atthika)

The Ten kinds of Recollections (Anussati)

1-the recollection of the Buddha(Buddha nussati)

2- the recollection of the Dhamma( Dhamma nussati)

3- the recollection of the Sangha(Samgha nussati)

4- the recollection of morality (sila nussati)

5- the recollection of generosity (Caga nussati)

6- the recollection of the Devas or deitites (Devata nussati)

7- the recollection of peace (Upasama nussati)

8- the recollection of death(Marana nussati)

9-The mindfulness of the body ( kaya gata nussati)

10-The mindfulness of breathing (Anapanasati)

The Ten kinds of Recollections (Anussati)

1-the recollection of the Buddha

(Buddha nussati)

It means mindfulness with the Buddha’s special qualities or virtues of the Buddha as the meditation subject.

THE VIRTUES OF THE BUDDHA

In pali,

Itipi so bhagava---------The Buddha , indeed, is the Blessed one

1) Araham

2) Samma sam buddho

3) Vijja carana sampanno

4) Sugato

5) Lokavidu

6) Anuttaro purisa damma sarathi

7) Sattha de va manussanam

8) Buddho

9) Bhagava

1)Araham (Accomplished)

According to Visuddhimagga-Atthakatha, Araham has five definitions.

1- araham-The Buddha possesses extraordinary moral conduct, concentration, wisdom, emancipation from all mental defilements and the knowledge about how to be freed from all mental defilements.

2-araham-Having cleansed Himself of 1500 kilesa (mental defilements) including inate habits and inclinations.

3-araham- Having eliminated all internal enemies that are mental defilements rooted in lobha (greed), dosa (hatred) and moha (ignorance).

4-araham-Already liberated from samsara ( the round of rebirth).

5-araham-Having sought no place to hide, as always pure both in front of others and behind others’ back.

The Buddha is uprooted or completely free from all mental defilements such as conceit, envy, deception, meanness, hypocrisy etc.

He is the venerable Buddha deserving of special worship by people, celestial beings and all living beings.

2)Samma sam buddho (perfectly self enlightened)

The Buddha knows the Four Noble Truths correctly without a teacher but by his own mental strength and investigation. Because of his unlimited wisdom and knowledge, the Buddha is worthy of honor.

3)Vijja-carana sampanno

(endowed with wisdom and excellent conduct)

The Buddha endowed with 3 special knowledges called “vijja”.

8 kinds of special knowledge and the 15 kinds of conduct or essential practices called “carana”

What are 3 kinds of knowledge?--- (Tisso vijja)

1) The knowledge capable of recollecting past lives or former existences.( pubbe ni vasa nussati nyanam vijja)

2) The knowledge capable of seeing the decease(death) and rebirth of beings. (sattanam cutupapate nyanam vijja)

3) The knowledge capable of eradicating defilements.

(Asavanam khaye nyanam vijja)

What are 8 kinds of knowledge?----(Attha Vijja)

1) Knowledge of attaining insight (Vippassana nana)

(The Buddha knows “my body is material , made from four great elements, and this is my consciousness which is bound to it and dependent on it”.

2) Knowledge of supernormal power of the mind- made body.

(Manomayiddhi nana)

3) Having various supernormal powers.(Iddhividha nana)

He becomes one, becomes many, appears and disappear, He passes through fences, walls, mountains unhindered as if through air; He sinks into the ground and emerges from it as if it were water, He walks on the water without breaking the surface as if on land. He flies cross-legged through the air like a bird with wings. He travels in the body as far as the Brahma world.

4) Having the divine ear (Dibbasota nana)

He can hear sounds both divine and human whether far or near.

5) Knowledge of others’ mind.( Cetopariya nana)

Understanding the ways of others’ thought.

6) Knowledge of previous existences (Pubbenivasa nussati nana)

(The rememberance of one’s former state of existence)

7) Having the divine eyes or knowledge of the passing –away and arising of beings.(Dibbacakkhu nana)

He sees beings passing-away and arising; inferior and superior; well-favoured and ill-favoured, to happy and unhappy destinations as kamma directs them.

8) Knowledge of eradicating defilements.(Asavakkhaya nana)

What are the 15 kinds of good conduct or Carana?

namely:

1-morality,restraint by virtue (Silasam vara)

2- restraint on 6 senses (looking, listening, scents and flagrances, tasting, bodily contact and thinking),(Indriyesu guttadvarata)

3-moderation in eating, (Bhojane mattannuta)

4-vigilance,Devotion to wakefulness (Jagariyanuyoga)

(5-11) satta Saddhamma = the seven good states

5- (Saddha) = faith, confidence

6- (Hiri) = moral shame(shame of wrong- doing)

7- (Ottappa) = moral dread(fear of wrong-doing)

8- (Bahussuta)=great learning,

9-(Araddhaviriya) = Energy, industriousness

10-(Upatthitassati) = mindfulness, concentration

11- (Panna) = wisdom, and

12-15- four jhana of the non-material sphere.(Cattari Rupavacarajhanani)

For the four aeons and one hundred thousand world cycles, throughout innumerable lives the Buddha sought for the well-being of mankind and he practice the 10 parami or ten noble wholesome deeds, namely

(1)charity,(2)morality,(3)renunciation,(4) wisdom, (5) industriousness,(6)tolerance,

(7) truthfulness,(8) resolve,(9) loving-kindness and

(10) equanimity and the five great sacrifices (giving up his wealth, wife and children, limbs, eyes and life for the well-being of other people) which lead to Omniscience. So the Buddha is worthy of honor.

 

TO BE CONTINUED ON DHAMMA LESSON (8)